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Research at the National Library of the Netherlands

Month: December 2013

The Elephant Returns to the Library…with a Pig!

Hadoop Driven Digital Preservation Hackathon in Vienna

Organised by: SCAPE project  and  Open Planets Foundation

By Clemens Neudecker & René van der Ark

These days, libraries are no longer exclusively collecting physical books and publications, but are also investing in digitisation on a massive scale. At the same time they are harvesting born-digital publications and websites alike. The problem of how to preserve all that digital information in the (very) long run has received a lot of attention. So called “preservation risks” pose a severe threat to the long-term availability of these digital assets. To name but a few: bitrot, format obsolescence and lack of open tools and frameworks.

To tackle these problems now and in the future, beefing up server performance and storage space is no longer a viable option. The growth of data is simply too fast to keep up. Therefore, in recent years, computer scientists tend to opt for scaling out, as opposed to scaling up. This is where buzzwords like the cloud and big data come in. To demystify: instead of scaling up with expensive hardware, scale out by setting up a cluster of cheap machines and doing distributed parallel calculations on them. Scaling out is now often the solution for fast processing of big data, but the principle might just as well be applied to safe (redundant) storage.

The European research project SCAPE (SCAlable Preservation Environments) has been set up in order to help the GLAM community lift their preservation technology to the big data needs of the 21st century digital library. One of the key ideas in SCAPE is to leverage big data technologies like Hadoop, and to apply them in order to scale out the preservation tools and technologies currently in use.

The hackathon on “Hadoop Driven Digital Preservation” at the Austrian National Library (ONB) in Vienna therefore provided a great opportunity for the KB to further its understanding of Hadoop and all its applications. Especially because Hadoop guru Jimmy Lin from the University of Maryland joined us not only as keynote, but also as teacher and co-hacker. Jimmy Lin has past experience working for Twitter and Cloudera and shared many insights in using Hadoop on a productive scale, several dimensions greater than what libraries are currently struggling with. One of his recent projects was to implement a web archive browser on Hadoop’s HBase called WarcBase. A great initiative which might just turn into the next generation Wayback Machine.

Besides, Vienna in December is always worth a visit!

At the event

The event started out with an introduction to the two use cases that were provided upfront by the organisers:

1) Web-Archiving: File Format Identification/Characterisation

2) Digital Books: Quality Assurance, text mining (OCR Quality)

However, participants were free to dive into either of these issues, continue developing their own projects or just investigate completely fresh ideas. So it was not a big surprise when soon after Jimmy’s first presentation introducing Pig as an alternative to writing MapReduce jobs “for lazy people”, many of the participants decided to work on creating small Pig scripts for various preservation related tools.

The nice thing about Pig is that it somewhat resembles common query languages like SQL. This makes it quite readable for most IT savy people. Also it is extensible with custom functions, which can be implemented in Java. Writing some of these user defined functions (UDF) is what we decided to focus on.

This event distinguished itself by the great amount of collaboration. As code reuse was greatly encouraged we decided to fork Jimmy Lin’s WarcBase project on github and extend it with UDF’s for language detection and MIME-type detection using Apache TIKA. The UDF’s we wrote were then in turn again used by many of the other participants’ projects.

The rest of the time we used to get more familiar with writing Pig scripts to apply on actual ARC/WARC files. While unfortunately there was a lack of publicly available ARC/WARC files for testing our MIME-type and language detection UDF’s, we were lucky that colleague Per Møldrup-Dalum from the SB in Aarhus had a cluster and a large collection from the Danish web archive  available for us to test these on:

HadoopVersion   PigVersion            UserId    StartedAt               FinishedAt
2.0.0-cdh4.0.1     0.9.2-cdh4.0.1      scape      14:19:53                 14:22:22

JobId:    job_201308301115_0151

Maps      Reduces
172         19

MaxMapTime       MinMapTime      AvgMapTime
106                         18                           77

MaxReduceTime MinReduceTime  AvgReduceTime
19                           17                           19

Alias                       Feature
a,b,c,d,e,f,raw      GROUP_BY,COMBINER

Input(s):

Successfully read 547093 records (3985472612 bytes) from:
“hdfs://zone1.isilon.sblokalnet/user/scape/arc-files/97-9-2005*”

Output(s):

Successfully stored 90 records (1613 bytes) in:
“hdfs://zone1.isilon.sblokalnet/user/scape/clemens-rene-1”

Counters:

Total records written : 90
Total bytes written : 1613
Spillable Memory Manager spill count : 0
Total bags proactively spilled: 0
Total records proactively spilled: 0

Honestly, we were a bit surprised ourselves when we got these numbers from Per – did our simple Pig script of 7 lines really just process the almost 550,000 ARC/WARC records in only 2:29 minutes? Indeed it did!

To learn more about the various results and outcomes of the event, make sure to check the blog post by Sven Schlarb. It must be mentioned that the colleagues from the ONB and OPF did an outstanding job in terms of event preparation – next to two real-life use cases, they also provided a virtual machine with a pseudo-distributed Hadoop and some more helpful tools from the Hadoop ecosystem that could be used for experimentation. In fact, there was even a cluster with some data ready to execute MapReduce jobs against and really test out how well they would scale. Thanks again!

Outlook

While the KB has been a member of PLANETS, a predecessor to SCAPE, as well as a member of the OPF and the SCAPE project, so far we have only had little time to experiment with Hadoop in our library.

Currently we are looking into using Hadoop for migrating around 150 TB of TIF images from the Metamorfoze Programme to the JPEG2000 format. Following the example of the British Library, we started experimenting with our own implementation of a TIF → JP2 workflow using Hadoop. Will Palmer from the British Library Digital Preservation team has already successfully built such a workflow and published it on github.

However, the TIF → JP2 migration is just about the hardest scenario to optimally implement on Hadoop. The encoding algorithm is very complex and would actually need to be rewritten entirely for parallel processing to make use of the power of Hadoop. Nevertheless, we believe that Hadoop has serious potential  – so the KB is also investigating some more use cases for Hadoop, currently in at least three different areas:

1. Webarchiving

The KB is one of the partners in the WebART project, where together with researchers from the UvA and the CWI new tools and methods to maximize the web archive’s utility for research are being created. Hadoop and HBase are also amongst the applications used here. Together with CWI and UvA the KB hopes to start up a new project for establishing an instance of WarcBase running on top of a scalable HBase cluster – this would really enable new, scalable ways of researching the Dutch web history. Colleague Thaer Sammar from CWI also participated in the hackathon, and the results of his efforts were quite convincing. Also, Jimmy is again one of the collaborators – we keep your fingers crossed!

2. Content enrichment

In the Europeana Newspaper project, the KB is currently creating a framework for named entity recognition (NER) on historical newspapers from all over Europe. Around 10 million pages of full-text will be created in the project, and the KB will provide named entities software for materials in Dutch, German and French language. It is expected that at least 2 million pages will be processed with NER, but the total collection of digitised newspapers at the KB is 8.5 million. Plus there are other collections (books, journals, radiobulletins) for which OCR exists. The KB aims to have all the entities in its digital collections detected, disambiguated and linked within the next 5 years. Given that all of this is text, and the sofware for NER is in Java, it would be interesting to see in how far Hadoop could be used to scale out the processing of all this data.

3. Business processes

From the organization, we are aware of a few particular scalability issues with some of the business processes, such as:

  • Generating business reports quickly: i.e. counting all the KB’s newspapers per publisher is now a painstakingly slow and somewhat unreliable process.
  • Acting as a data provider: harvesting the newspapers’ metadata sequentially takes a week now, and will only take longer when the collection is expanded. Harvesting records in parallel (16 requests / second) created serious stress on the current middleware and even came close to crashing it.
  • Parallelizing (pre-) ingest processes, like metadata validation, file characterization and checksum validation.

Finally, we have also looked at HDFS for scalable, but durable storage. However, for preservation purposes storing files on the Hadoop cluster might introduce some risk, because the files would be partitioned and scattered across the cluster. Then again, the concept of scaling out can still be useful, for example to:

  • prevent bitrot: by replication of files and using agents which repair corrupt replica’s on a regular basis;
  • applying file migrations: here processing data on one machine in sequential batches is again not viable in the long run.

As you see, while there is no Hadoop cluster running in the KB (yet?), it seems there are sufficient ideas and use cases for continuing to work with these technologies, and to build up expertise with Hadoop, HBase etc. We are also very interested in exchanging ideas and use cases with other libraries that are already using Hadoop productively. Last but not least, Hadoopsummit Europe will be held in Amsterdam again next year – so, we’ll see you there perhaps?

Useful links:

Github:

Twitter:

10 Tips for making your OCR project succeed

(reblogged from http://www.digitisation.eu/community/blog/article/article/10-tips-for-making-your-ocr-project-succeed/)

This year in November, it has been exactly 10 years that I have been more or less involved with digital libraries and OCR. In fact, my first encounter with OCR even predates the digital library: during my student days, one of my fellow students was blind, and I was helping him out with his studies by scanning and OCR-ing the papers he needed, so their contents could be read out to him using Text2Speech software or printed on a braille display. Looking back, OCR technology has evolved significantly in many areas since then. Projects like MetaE and IMPACT have greatly improved the capabilities of OCR technology to recognize historical fonts, and open source tools such as Google’s Tesseract or those offered by the IMPACT Centre of Competence are getting closer and closer to the functionalities and success rates offered by commercial products.

Accordingly, I would like to take this opportunity to present you some thoughts and recommendations that I’ve derived from my personal experience of 10+ years with OCR processing.

A final caveat: while this is a very interesting discussion, I will not say a single word here about whether to perform OCR as an in-house activity or via out-sourcing. My general assumption is that below considerations can provide useful information for both scenarios.

1.    Know your material

The more you know about the material / collection you are aiming to OCR, the better. Some characteristics are essential for the configuration of the OCR, like e.g. the language of a document and the fonts (Antiqua, Gothic, Cyrillic, etc.) present. While such information is typically not available in library catalogues, sending documents in French language to an OCR engine configured to recognize English will yield equally poor results as trying to OCR a Gothic typeface with Antiqua settings.

Fortunately there are some helpful tools available – e.g. Apache Tika can detect the language of a document quite reliably. You may consider running such or similar characterization software in a pre-processing step to gather additional information about the content for a more fine-grained configuration of the OCR software.

Some more features in the running text the presence and frequency of which could influence your OCR setup are: tables and illustrations, paragraphs with rotated text, handwritten annotations, foldouts.

2.    Capture high quality – INPUT

Once you are ready to proceed to the image capture step it is important to think about how to set this up. While recent experiments have shown that (on simple documents) there is no apparent loss in recognition quality from using e.g. compressed JPEG images for OCR, my recommendation still remains to scan with the highest optical resolution (typically 300 or 400 ppi) and store the result in an uncompressed format like TIFF or PNG (or even the RAW data directly from the scanner).

While this may result in huge files and storage costs (btw, did you know that the cost per GB of hard drive space drop by 48% every year?), keep in mind that any form of post-processing or compression does essentially reduce the amount of information available in the image for subsequent processing – and it turns out that OCR engines are becoming more and more sophisticated in using this information (e.g. colour) to improve recognition. However, once gone, this information can never be retrieved again without rescanning. If you binarize (=convert to black-and-white) your images immediately after scanning, you won’t be able to leverage the benefits of the next-generation OCR system that requires greyscale or colour documents.

It may also be worthwhile mentioning that while this has never been made very explicit, the classifiers in many OCR engines are optimized for an optical resolution of 300 ppi, and deliver the best recognition rates with documents in that particular resolution. Only in the case of very small characters (as e.g. found on large newspaper pages) can it make sense to scale the image up to 600 ppi for better OCR results.

3.    Capture high quality – OUTPUT

OCR is still a costly process – from preparation to execution, costs can easily amount to between .5 up to .50 € per page. Thus you want to make sure that you derive the most possible value from it. Don’t be satisfied with plain text only! Nowadays some form of XML with (at least) basic structuring and most importantly positional information on the level of blocks / regions, or even better line and word or sometimes even glyph level, should always be available after OCR. ALTO is one commonly used standard for representing such information in an XML format, but also TEI or other XML-based formats can be a good choice.

Not only does the coordinate information enable greatly enhanced search and display of search results (hit term highlighting), there are also many further application scenarios such as the automated generation of table of contents, the production of eBooks, the presentation on mobile devices etc. that rely heavily on structural and layout information being available from OCR processing.

4.    Manage expectations

No matter how modern and in pristine condition your documents are, or whether you use the most advanced scanning equipment and highly configured OCR software, it is quite unrealistic to expect anything more than 90 – 95 % word accuracy from automatic processing. Most of the times though you will be happy to even come anywhere near that range.

Note that most commercial OCR engines calculate error rates based on characters and not words. This can be very misleading, since users will want to search for words. Given there are only 30 errors across a single page with 3000 characters, the character error rate (30/3000, 0,01%) seems exceptionally low. But now assume the 3000 characters boil down to only around 600 words – and the 30 erroneous characters are well distributed across different words. We arrive at an actually much higher (5x) error rate (30/600, 0,05%). To make things worse, OCR engines typically report a “confidence score” in the output. This however only means that the software believes with a certain threshold to have recognized a character or word correctly or incorrectly. These “assumptions”, despite conservative, are unfortunately often found not to be true. That is why the only possible way to derive absolutely reliable OCR accuracy scores is by the use of ground truth-driven evaluation, which is expensive and cumbersome to perform.

Obviously all of this has implications on the quality of any service based on the OCR result. These issues must be made transparent to the organization, and should in all cases also be communicated to the end user.

5.    Exploit full text to the fullest

Once you derive full text from OCR processing, it can be the first stepping stone for a wide array of further enhancements of your digital collection. Life does not stop with (even good) OCR results!

Full text gives you the ability to exploit a multitude of tools for natural language processing (NLP) on the content. Named entity recognition, topic modelling, sentiment analysis, keyword extraction etc. are just a few of the possibilities to further refine and enrich the full text.

6.    Tailor the workflow

The enemy of large-scale automated processing, it can nevertheless often be worthwhile investing some more time and tailor the OCR processing flow to the characteristics of the source material. There are highly specialized modules and engines for particular pre- and post-processing tasks, and integrating these with your workflow for a very particular subset of a collection can often yield surprising improvements in the quality of the result.

7.    Use all available resources

One of the important findings of the IMPACT project was that the use of additional language technologies can boost OCR recognition by an amount than cannot realistically be expected from even major breakthroughs in pattern recognition algorithms. Especially in dealing with historical material there is a lot of spelling variation, and it gets extremely difficult for the OCR software to correctly detect these old words. Making the OCR software aware of historical spelling by supplying it with a historical dictionary or word list can deliver dramatic improvements here. In addition, new technologies can detect valid historical spelling variants and distinguish them from common OCR errors. This makes it much quicker and easier to correct those OCR mistakes while retaining the proper historical word forms (i.e. no normalization is applied).

8.    Try out different solutions

There is a surprisingly large number of OCR software available, both freely and commercially. The Succeed project compiled information about all OCR and related software tools in a huge database that you can search here.

Also quite useful in this are the IMPACT Framework and Demonstrator Platform – these tools allow you to test different solutions for OCR and related tasks online, or even combine distinct tools into comprehensive document recognition workflows and compare those using samples of the material you have to process.

9.    Consult experts

All over the world people are applying, researching and sometimes re-inventing OCR technology. The IMPACT Centre of Competence provides a great entry point to that community. eMOP is another large OCR project currently run in the US. Consult with the community to find out about others who may have done projects similar to yours in the past and who can share findings or even technology.

Finally, consider visiting one of the main conferences in the field, such as ICDAR or ICPR and look at the relevant journal publications by IAPR etc. There is also a large community of OCR and pattern recognition experts in the Biosciences, e.g. in iDigBioHackathons like for example the ones organized by Succeed can provide you with hands-on experience with the tools and technologies being available for OCR.

10.    Consider post-correction

When all other things fail and you just can’t obtain the desired accuracy using automated processing methods, post-correction is often the only possible way to increase the quality of the text to a level suitable for scientific study and text mining. There are many solutions offered to adopt OCR post-correction, from simple-to-use crowdsourcing efforts to rather specialized tools for experts. Gamification of OCR correction has also been explored by some. And as a side effect you may also learn to interact more closely with your users and understand their needs.

With this I hope to have given you some points to take into consideration when planning your next OCR project and wish you much success in doing so. If you would like to comment on any of the points mentioned or maybe share your personal experience with an OCR project, we would be very happy to hear from you!

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